Meghalaya - Region Profile

Meghalaya is a state in the north-east India and means "the abode of clouds" in Sanskrit and other Indo-Iranian languages. As of 2011, the state has a population of 2.96 million and is the 23rd most populous in the country. Meghalaya covers an area of approximately 2.2 million hectares. This state is surrounded in the north by Assam and by Bangladesh in its south. Meghalaya is basically an agricultural state with about 80% of its population depending entirely on agriculture for their livelihood. Nearly 10% of the geographical area of Meghalaya is under cultivation. Rice is the dominant food grain crop accounting for over 80% of the food grain production in the state. Other important food grain crops are maize, wheat, other cereals and pulses. Besides the major food crops of rice and maize, the state is renowned for its horticultural crops like orange, lemon, pineapple, guava, litchi, banana, jack fruit and temperate fruits such as plum, pear, peach etc. Table 1 illustrates the current area, productivity and production statistics of major crops in Meghalaya.

Nutrient consumption in Meghalaya in the past decade is given in Fig. 2. Total fertilizer nutrient consumption in the state of Meghalaya increased from 4.76 thousand MT during 2011-12 to 4.85 thousand MT in 2012-13. The nutrient consumption ratio for N, P2O5 and K2O was 14.9:5.6:1 in the year 2011-12 as over 10.1:3.0:1 in the year 2012-13. The total consumption of plant nutrients per unit of gross cropped area was 14.1 kg/ha in 2011-12 which increased to 31.1 kg/ha in 2012-13. Using the area and production of major crops, the total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) removal by each crop was calculated and a nutrient balance sheet was prepared (table 2).

Table 1: Latest Crop Production Statistics of Meghalaya -2012-13

ParametersRiceWheatMaizeTotal CerealsGramTotal PulsesTotal FoodgrainsTotal OilseedsSugarcaneJute#
Area ('000 ha); Production ('000 tonnes); Productivity (kg/ha); # Production and Productivity in 1000 bales of 180 kg each

Table 2: Nutrient balance sheet for major crops of Meghalaya (2012-13)

CropArea (in '000 ha)Production (in '000 tonnes)Nutrient Removal (kg/tonne)Total Removal (tonnes)
Total Pulses3.63.74052014818.574
Total Oilseeds106.9541446372.696.6317.4
Total removal by major crops6239.63255.359242.87
Total fertilizer consumption in Meghalaya33601150340
Consumption * Efficiency factor1344345238
Efficiency of N=40%; P2O5= 30%; and K2O=70%

*Crop production and fertilizer use data are retrieved from Fertiliser Statistics, 2013-14, The Fertiliser Association of India, New Delhi

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